“You are a phony celebrity. You’re a flash in the pan, and in a couple of weeks, no one is going to give a shit about you. That’s Chicago.” -Billy Flynn

“KYLIE IS PREGNANT,” “KIM AND KANYE ARE GETTING DIVORCED,” “KENDALL SHOWS OFF HER MODEL FRAME;” these are just a few of the many headlines that circulate mainstream media. Although all of these headlines revolve around the Kardashians (which is no accident, as they are frequent headline occupiers), many of the more gossipy, scandalous, and therefore more entertaining stories involve female celebrities. The motive of any magazine is to produce the headlines and stories that society wants to read or hear about, reflecting women’s role in entertainment and what society wants or even expects from women. Though headlines and celebrity gossip are seemingly unimportant, after watching Chicago, I’ve realized it is a greater reflection of societal norms and values since it corresponds to the information that people seek, which is inherently influenced by their biases and preconceptions about societal structures, including but definitely not limited to the patriarchy. 

Chicago reflects this big, and quite frankly scary, idea in a profound, comprehensive way that resonates strongly with the viewer. Chicago is the “longest-running American musical in Broadway history;” it was revived on the stage in 1996 and has carried strong ever since. Written and first debuted in 1975, Bob Fosse and Fred Ebb transport audiences to the roaring twenties in the roaring city of Chicago. There is no shortage of flash, booze, and jazz—John Kander writes bluesy hits that I can’t seem to stop humming. Fosse’s choreography brings these numbers to life, as do Ebb’s lyrics, all of which create an incredible, theatrical spectacle that later was translated into a cinematic masterpiece. Created in 2002, Rob Marshall directs the three main characters to perfection—Velma, played by Catherine Zeta-Jones, Roxie, played by Renee Zellweger, and Billy Flynn, played by Richard Gere, beautifully portray this infamous story of crime, scandal, and celebrity. Both Velma and Roxie shoot someone and are being tried for murder. Locked up in their jail cells, they rely on the help from Billy Flynn, a famous lawyer, to figure out how to set them free and ultimately save their lives, mostly by figuring out ways in which to appeal to the (conveniently) all male jury. Through its plot line and theatrical numbers, Chicago captures the longstanding perception of women as props meant solely for entertainment value with little other purpose or worth, highlighting one of the many ways in which women are objectified. The film argues that they are to be looked at or observed, but not to be taken seriously—their lives don’t really matter. This idea is exemplified through the plot thread of the actual lives of these women being at stake, and to save their lives, they must make the jury want to keep them alive by giving them what they seek and putting on a “show.” 

Fosse and Ebb use performance as a medium for illustrating a woman’s purpose of entertaining and serving the needs of men. They capture this by having some of the numbers, that represent a moment in a character’s life, be an act on the jazz club stage, with the announcer, intricate costuming, and a glamorized performance depicting the act. This is most prominently displayed through “the Hungarian Disappearing Act,” which was essentially a casual, glorified way of depicting her hanging, revealing that this woman’s life was purely for entertainment in society’s eyes. “It’s show business,” as Billy Flynn would say.

This line opens the number, “Razzle Dazzle,” which prominently displays women as entertainment and the inherent misogyny within that that the musical proclaims. The number occurs simultaneously with Roxie’s trial; the film cuts back and forth between a circus-like performance taking place in the trial room and the actual trial (one of the benefits of cinema), once again highlighting the idea that the trial itself is a performance that Roxie and Billy are putting on. Billy even mistakes the jury for the “audience” by calling them that and then quickly correcting himself, solidifying the idea that these women’s lives are a spectacle for the “audience’s” viewing pleasure. They both put on quite a show during the trial itself—they are very theatrical in their movements and expressions, with big swooping arms, raised voices, crying, and fainting. Billy preps her to do this during the number—he emphasizes the importance of theatrics and “dazzl[ing]” the men in order to win her case and have her life be saved. 

This highly androcentric perspective is portrayed in the characteristics of the number itself. Billy—who is conveniently the star of the number while Roxie does not say a word—is surrounded by scantily-dressed women in gold jewels and red feathers posing around him. They seem to be on display without an ounce of autonomy, only moving with an occasional delicate twist of the arm or graceful leg lift or swirl from the ceiling on silks. They serve no purpose except for visual aesthetics, “complementing” Billy and the male jury members and acting as props. All of this is to point out the misogynistic undertones of the number itself, beyond the obvious messaging through the song’s sexist lyrics. Most of the lyrics place the responsibility on the woman to “razzle dazzle” the men in order to get what they want; this involves stunning, shocking, blinding, and wowing them, assigning men the power in this dynamic. He describes women as shiny objects that they can use to their advantage in order to distract these men (“How can they see with sequins in their eyes?”), showcasing the blatant objectification that existed in this world.

…speaking of distracting…

To add to this idea of women distracting men, the composition illustrates this well by incorporating high hats. A lot of high hats. These stick out and are very consuming to the ear, representing this “flash” or distraction objective Billy describes through his lyrics. There are also many chimes that paint an image of sparkles or “sequins” falling around these women with men left agape, reflecting an all-too-prominent standard in society of the man staring at the woman as the woman does something with her body to impress him. This outdated image is also backed by the old-fashioned instrumentality of the song. Upon hearing the piano, brass, and trumpets, my mind instantly thought “old-timey, feel good, American jazz”—verbatim from my notes. This era of musicality is a reflection of the outdated standards and expectations of women at the time, that have still carried over in many ways.

Through its plot line and theatrical numbers, Chicago captures the longstanding perception of women as props meant solely for entertainment value with little other purpose or worth, highlighting one of the many ways in which women are objectified.

It works, though! Roxie is found not guilty! Smiles and cheers fill the screen until—bang!—another woman has shot a man. The reporters move right along to the next headline, leaving Roxie in the dust. Roxie is upset and frustrated rather than joyous and relieved that her life has just been saved, revealing how she has internalized this need to be the headline that without, her life has little value. Ultimately, we see how female performers and celebrities, like Roxie, internalize the harmful stereotypes and behaviors that show business as a capitalist enterprise perpetuates. People are just looking for the thing that will make headlines and make them the most money, which ultimately means appealing to the wants of society, reflecting society’s misogynistic views of women. This is applicable not solely for show business or for headlines but in many aspects of life. Women having to act or appear a certain way to appeal to a certain audience in order to achieve what they want is something that I think about often, especially when thinking about eventually entering the workforce in a field, STEM, that used to be heavily dominated by men. It is easy to get caught up in these ideas in order to get ahead, but after watching Chicago and writing this blog post, I’ve realized the importance of staying true to yourself and values. And even though Velma and Roxie get somewhat of a happy, successful ending, I wouldn’t say the journey was worth it. Definitely one I’m not willing to take. 

A Step in the Right Direction: Commentary on the Racial Dynamics of Allegiance

About the authors: Emily Willett (EW) is a sophomore at Vanderbilt University studying Medicine, Health, and Society. She is particularly interested in how health is defined through policy and the societal implications of this. She has been a part of musical theater for a long time—from singing The Sun Will Come Out in an Annie wig to her extended family at Thanksgiving to performing with a musical theater company through high school, her relationship with musical theater has been a long-lasting, formative one. She especially loves musicals that explore important historical topics, giving audience members a glimpse into history while also still being thoroughly entertained, like Allegiance. Allegiance also tackles systemic issues that she has been studying in her MHS classes and THTR 3333 thus far, so she has enjoyed applying and expanding her knowledge through her discussion with her co-author about this musical.

Madison Ferguson (MF) is also a sophomore at Vanderbilt University, and she is studying Biomedical Engineering on the pre-med track. She has always enjoyed watching musical theater, but didn’t fully get involved until sophomore year of high school where she became the Audio Visual club president and became the sound designer for many of the school’s plays and choir concerts. This love for musical theater developed after listening to Hamilton for the first time in 2017, and much like Hamilton, Allegiance takes a historical moment and puts it into the realm of musical theater. She is writing this post for a course she is currently in, THTR 3333: Cultural Identity and the American Musical, which has really helped expand her scope of thinking and reflection of this particular type of art.

About the musical: The musical Allegiance (2015; filmed on stage) was definitely a step in the right direction for representation of minority races and ethnicities, especially Asian Americans, on the musical stage by emphasizing and incorporating authentic Japanese themes. The musical, which is largely inspired by the personal experiences of George Takei who stars as Ojii-Chan and older Sam in the musical, is set during the Japanese American Internment of World War II and tells the story of Sam, played by Telly Leung. Sam is a second generation Japanese immigrant, and we see Sam grapple with his identity, his family, other fellow Japanese Americans, and his internal conflict to do what he believes is right.

EW: What did you think of it?

MF: I really liked it and I thought the creators did a great job portraying this piece of Japanese American history.

EW: Yeah I agree, I really enjoyed watching it—I’m surprised it’s not more popular. I had never heard of it before.

MF: I wonder if that speaks to the general attitude and messages the musical portrays that don’t align with typical racial binaries and power systems.

EW: Right, I think the musical really makes clear the racially charged motives of the US government during this time and how it was concealed through the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL) and specifically the character and historical figure, Mike Masaoka, who was played by Greg Watanabe. It was interesting how we see the different Japanese-American characters reacted to the inherently discriminatory actions from the government during this time period, because we see two foils almost—the protagonist, Sam, who doesn’t necessarily agree with the circumstances but wants to actively fight in the war to prove his loyalty as an American, and Frankie, whose family was locked up directly following the bombing and as a result, is resentful and angry at any person in power who allowed them all to be in this situation. 

MF: It’s interesting you say foils because even though they ultimately have the same goal, the musical sets up their characters in such a way that makes them almost enemies.

EW: And we even see this with Frankie and other Japanese-American characters’ opinions towards Mike, and how they direct their frustration and anger at him rather than the white official giving Mike the orders, simply because they didn’t get to see what goes on behind the scenes like we, the audience, did.

MF: Right, which is another prime example of conflict and blaming within minority groups rather than at the larger system that is built upon and perpetuates white supremacy. It’s really interesting to think about what can be said about the racial dynamics of the country as a whole when thinking about Japanese culture portrayed on stage and the dynamics and interactions between Frankie, Mike, and Sam, and how this mirrors, or possibly contrasts, the racial dynamics of the US today. 

“This is the one show that does have an Asian perspective behind it, besides the Asian actors onstage. I don’t think it’s something that Broadway has seen before, but it’s certainly something that Broadway actually needs.”

– Lea Salonga

EW: The fact that this musical not only possesses a primarily Asian cast, but also was directed by Stafford Arima, who is Asian-American and had the majority of his team and creators also be Asian-American is so important. I believe it really contributes to the musical’s success in its purpose, power, and raw authenticity. Lea Salonga, who plays Kei, says, it’s what Broadway needs—it’s what is necessary for any musical depicting a particular culture. This reminds me of the “Balancing Act” reading on Fiddler on the Roof and the importance of authenticity of minority groups, which goes hand in hand with representation and research of said group. With Allegiance, there is no balancing really—they have it all, which only contributes to impactful and profound nature as a piece of entertainment. 

MF: Yes, I definitely feel like this musical has given power and opportunity to Asian actors on stage. They’ve even tried to capture authentic Japanese culture through the sounds and lyrics. Jay Kuo, who was the composer and lyricist for Allegiance, tried to replicate Japanese sounds as accurately as possible. He didn’t physically use Japanese native instruments, which would have taken up too much room, but he did make use of certain authentic elements such as an Asian gong, the Chinese Tom, and piccolo wood blocks. For other sounds, Joe Mowatt, a musician for the show, made use of different electronic devices to replicate the Taiko sounds (Japanese percussion sounds) that couldn’t be done with the instruments at his disposal.

EW: This reminds me of and very much contrasts Miss Saigon and the way in which they “capture” Vietnamese culture (they don’t). In one of our readings, a cast member mentions how they made up Vietnamese-sounding lyrics and instead of actually taking the time to research the language and incorporate it accurately.

MF: Jay Kuo, on the other hand, included many Japanese words and phrases into the dialogue and lyrics. The song “Ishi Kara Ishi” was sung by Kei and Ojii-Chan and it means “[a mountain can be moved], stone by stone.” This powerful phrase being said in the language of their culture shows that they still need that connection to help them get through this difficult time, despite being forced to let go of any connection to Japan lest they be seen as “traitors” to America. Another phrase was also said quite often throughout the show, “Gaman,” which means “enduring the seemingly unbearable with patience and dignity.” This phrase really encapsulates the attitude of the Japanese Americans through all the hardships and struggles they had to face at the hands of the U.S. government all to be considered a harmless, loyal American.

“…the songs of “Allegiance” are themselves a pastiche of relentless optimism that admits to no darkness.”

Nichi Bei

EW: I wanted to address something I read about the musical from Nichi Bei, a Japanese-American news outlet, that slightly contradicts our general views and opinions thus far but is important to discuss. This article of cultural criticism depicts Allegiance in a negative light, revealing the idea that it portrays “relentless optimism that admits no darkness.” I think a lot of this optimism can be traced back to Sam and the way in which he approaches their situation. He seems to be in a constant state of negative denial, focusing solely on his desire to fight for America, his country, despite America’s desire to keep Japanese-Americans like him locked in an internment camp. He clings tightly to this American identity, especially in his solo number, What Makes a Man. He says, “I’ll set an example / help others see beyond race,” placing the responsibility on him to help others (aka white people) see his American identity when all they can see is someone who is not the same as them, someone who is not white. Not only do we see racial hierarchies at play here, but the title of the song also upholds patriarchal standards; what Sam is essentially saying is that a man is someone who holds these patriotic, passionate values and is willing to fight despite all odds, conflating masculinity with loyalty to your country. 

MF: Speaking to that point, I also had a thought on Sam’s relationship with Hannah, the internment camp nurse. This relationship puts even more emphasis on Sam and his love and loyalty to America. He falls in love with a stereotypical representation of America, a white woman. This woman, Hannah, holds a position of power over Sam and the other Japanese Americans; she has the power to provide or withdraw medical supplies and assistance, which could even be viewed as a “white savior” coming to aid the Japanese Americans because they don’t have the power to help themselves. Hannah, a woman, is higher up in the power hierarchy than any of the Japanese Americans, and for a time where women were looked down upon this really says something about how minority races were viewed as inferior no matter the gender. 

EW: Tying that idea into an American context, throughout the show and even to the very end, we see Sam’s undying loyalty to his American identity and the things he achieves as a result of it. He is a “true American hero”—but the musical addresses the question, at what cost? He loses his family and holds many regrets, so even though he is named a hero, I don’t think the director and writers of the show mean to portray him as one. And yes, he is very optimistic, which may be reflective of his naivete and blindness about how his racial identity impacts how he and other Japanese-Americans are treated. The difference in tone of voice between Sam and his father is reflective of their differences in wisdom and knowledge—Sam, depicted as this youthful, passion-seeking boy, has a higher pitched voice, while his father produces a low, bellowing sound anytime he speaks or sings. This emphasizes the innocent and optimistic outlook Sam possesses, that his father knows is not a reality. But despite critiques on this optimism, Sam does encourage morale of the people in the camp, doing his best to make life for them as great as it can be. 

MF: I really noticed this optimistic and lighthearted view with the dance scene that takes place at their internment camp, Heart Mountain.

This scene right from the beginning is fast paced and upbeat with swing music that was popular in America in the 1940s. The dancing also starts quickly with Charleston-esque movements that are very high tempo and fun. This decision from choreographer, Andrew Palermo, might have been trying to give the group in the camp a fun activity to break it up from the other serious troubles they had been facing, but I feel like it can also be argued that this optimistic view takes away from the hardships that were actually faced. 

Everything was also very Americanized from the setting to the song to the dancing. This could be interpreted as those in charge at the camp trying to suppress the inherent Japanese culture out of these people. It’s giving the idea that because you’re in America, you need to act like an American (i.e. a white American).

Later on in the scene Frankie is seen mocking Mike Masaoka, the JACL spokesperson. He sings the lyrics, “just put up and shut up, cause you’re in paradise!” This is almost like Frankie is dissenting from this forced Americanism, albeit in a very catchy and fun way, but he is still voicing how Masaoka doesn’t seem to understand the things those in camps and in prison are really living simply because they’re in this so called “paradise” that is America. This also further perpetuates the divide of Japanese Americans, where those with different opinions on the situation are on opposing sides. Once again, the minority group is somehow becoming the victim AND the enemy, which sustains the idea of power being maintained by the white American leaders.

EW: Watching this musical in 2022 was honestly very interesting. Even though it’s set in the 1940s, I couldn’t help but notice that these themes of the inherent racism of America are still relevant to this day.

MF: Yeah, I noticed this as well, especially with the COVID-19 pandemic when Asian hate was very prevalent throughout the country. When people had heard that it had originated in China, hate crimes against Asian Americans increased by 77%, and these were people who were also minding their own business, but were discriminated against simply because of how they looked. As someone who is Asian, Chinese specifically, this issue really weighed heavily on me because I didn’t want to one day become a victim of these nonsensical, vicious hate crimes. I also felt frustrated and cheated by our country and our government that as an American citizen, I even had to worry about this type of thing.

EW: That is so frustrating and unfair. And it’s what happened to the Japanese Americans in this story—getting locked up by government officials solely because of their race, despite their American identities. And it’s frightening to think about how this government is basically the same one we have today. World War II was not that long ago, and little has been done to combat these harmful concerns of structural racism that is inherently embedded in our US government. 

MF: And it can be noted that our generation today has become much more aware of these issues, and we are voicing our opinions against this harmful power system.

EW: Right, I feel very proud to be a part of this generation and the change that has begun to occur largely mobilized by us. Through participating in protests for movements like Stop Asian Hate and Black Lives Matter, I was able to do a small sliver of my part in fighting for something so extremely important and standing up against systemic racism.  

MF: And even though racism is still prevalent today, we are finally trying to fight against it and make positive change, which is a step in the right direction, just like Allegiance is for the musical stage.


42nd street as a product of the patriarchy

by emily Willett

It has glitter, glam, and girls?! It’s no surprise 42nd Street became nothing short of a musical phenomenon that returned to the stage only four years ago. Written in 1980, Michael Stewart and Mark Bramble create a show within a show, with a plot that followed a timid, talented chorus girl, Peggy Stewart (played by Clare Halse), on her claim to fame. She navigates the highs and lows of show business through—wait for it—glamorous song and dance. Al Dubin and Johnny Mercer’s lyrics combined with Harry Warren’s composition allows her story to come alive, as well as the stories of other leading characters like accomplished yet difficult actress Dorothy Brock, aggressive producer Julian Marsh, and leading man Billy Lawlor. Gower Champion’s choreography brings the musical to life, contributing to critical reviews calling it a “gorgeously made musical.” Gorgeously made, however, does not mean gorgeously conveyed. Through the lyrics, costume, acting, and choreography, 42nd Street glorifies misogyny through the objectification of women. The number “Dames/Keep Young and Beautiful” is a prime example. Billy sings about the sole purpose of seeing a show (“Dames”) while putting forth sexist ideas that the writers and choreographer only emphasize through the chorus girls’ portion of the song, “Keep Young and Beautiful.” As a female-identifying viewer, I do not wish to see harmful stereotypes expressed through song and dance, especially when they are not followed up or addressed in some productive manner. Although not as obvious, such gender stereotypes still very much exist in today’s world. Musical numbers such as this one certainly lack in the “positively contributing to society” category.

The number opens on Billy, sing-expressing his thoughts about women (enough said). Peggy, as directed by Mark Bramble, passes him and noticeably crouches in nervousness, fear or embarrassment (most likely a combination of all three), to which Billy pays no mind. He continues singing and even gives her his hat, clearly establishing a power dynamic between the two. As this dominant figure, the audience hangs closely to the words coming out of his mouth, which include, “who cares if there’s a plot or not,/ when they’ve got a lot of dames!” This line not only diminishes the intricacies of show business, but it also underscores objectification of women, since the reason given for why men attend is simply to admire the “dames.” The male chorus echos with lyrics about how women are “temporary” and how they “don’t recall their names,” to which I say, oh-my-god-what!?! This blunt misogyny stares the audience right in the face, not only through these awful lyrics, but also through their costumes. Each man is wears (bow)ties, suspenders, and top hats, all of which reflect a typical image of masculinity (at least for the time period). The costumes also play to these men’s good nature and even innocence through the sweater vests and large smiles, depicting them as “good boys” allowing them to get away with the harmful things they say. 

As a female-identifying viewer, I do not wish to see harmful stereotypes expressed through song and dance, especially when they are not followed up or addressed in some productive manner.

As the men clear the stage, they unveil a group of women, posing and looking at themselves in handheld mirrors. This image immediately sets the tone for the women’s embrace of their surface-level feminine beauty, created not only through the mirrors but also through their choreography. With leg movements to create symmetry and geometric shapes, the chorus girls’ dancing very much appeals to the song’s targeted audience, prioritizing visual aesthetic and pleasure, over showcasing their talent. Champion purposefully draws parallels to Ziegfeld’s Follies, also designed to appeal to the sexual desires of men, as well as Theoni Aldridge’s costume design (nothing screams “object of affection” like sparkly leotards) and Dubin and Mercer’s lyrics.

The chorus girls listen intently to the lyrics sung by male ensemble (and written by Maggie Jones and Bert Barry) absorbing every word with smiling faces and enthusiastic nods, despite the demeaning line (and even title) “keep young and beautiful / if you want to be loved.” The anti-feminist statements keep coming—“take care of all those charms / and you’ll always be in a guys arms” once again enforces the idea that it is a woman’s sole purpose in life to be loved by a man (which is, not to mention, very heteronormative), and to do so, they must take care of their “charms” and be physically and sexually appealing. Not only is “charms” a sexual innuendo but also defined as “giving delight or arousing please,” which is precisely what the entire number suggests in regards to female sexuality and the male gaze.

With leg movements to create symmetry and geometric shapes, the choreography the chorus girls perform very much appeals to the targeted audience that is outlined in the song, prioritizing visual aesthetic and pleasure, over showcasing their talent.

“Dames/Keep Young and Beautiful” functions as a product of the patriarchy by perpetuating sexist concepts and physically establishing power dichotomies between the male and female characters. Perhaps it is because the number is metatheatrical, depicting a 1920s period number in Pretty Girl, or it’s a product of the 1980’s feminist backlash, but either way, the lyrics, costumes, acting, and choreography express blatant misogyny. Looking forward, I hope to see more female empowerment interwoven in the book, lyrics, choreography, and acting of characters in the musicals I continue to watch, or at the very least, I hope to see less explicit sexism. Musicals are meant for entertainment, and because of the circumstances, I can’t say I felt very entertained. 42nd Street draws on old-fashioned ideals of entertainment that are rooted in misogyny (which are even spelled out in “Dames”—ironic).